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Kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chains are expressed by plasma cells and plasmacytoid lymphocytes. They are also expressed, but less reliably detected, on B cells with weak cytoplasmic staining. However, immunoglobulin are also a major component of serum, leading to (in many tissue types) high background/non-specific staining which may obscure the detection/observation of light chain restriction among B lineage cells. This non-specific staining also impedes the assessment of light chain skewing in non-neoplastic populations.
As all proteins are translated from mRNA, detection of mRNA transcripts can be a useful surrogate for protein expression and therefore in-situ hybridization for kappa and lambda mRNA transcripts can be used to determine the light chain restriction status for plasma cell and plasmacytoid B cell populations.
Subcellular Localization: Cytoplasmic
CPT Code(s): 88365 or 88364 (reference only; CPTs may vary)
Turnaround Time: Within 1-2 business days of receipt
Schedule: Monday - Friday
• Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue block or cell block - OR -
• 1 unstained slide for each test requested plus 3-4 additional unstained slides cut at 4µm