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PD-L1 (Programmed Death-Ligand 1), also known as CD274, is a 40 kDa type 1 transmembrane protein that has been speculated to play a major role in suppressing the immune system. Binding of PD-L1 to its ligand PD-1, which is expressed by various immune cell types including T cells, transmits an inhibitory signal that attenuates T cell function, expansion, and survival. Many tumors types can express PD-L1, including breast, ovarian, gastric, pancreatic, lung and renal cell carcinomas, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. PD-L1 expression by tumor cells is thought to inhibit the local immune response to the tumor, at least in part by binding to T cell PD-1 and protecting the tumor from T-cell mediated immunity. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis by humanized monoclonal antibodies against PD-1 and PD-L1 has emerged as a promising new cancer therapy. The anti-PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab have received FDA approval for treating metastatic squamous NSCLC and metastatic melanoma, respectively. Expression of PD-L1 by tumors may predict response to these drugs. The main clinical indication for PD-L1 IHC is expected to be assessment of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells prior to the initiation of therapy targeting the PD-1 / PD-L1 axis. However, unforeseen clinical indications cannot be excluded. Subcellular Localization: membranous and cytoplasmic
Disease State: Melanoma
CPT Code(s): 88360. The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed.
Turnaround Time: Within 1-2 business days of receipt
Schedule: Monday - Friday
• Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue block or cell block - OR - • 1 unstained slide for each test requested plus 3-4 additional unstained slides cut at 4µm